The sub-programme 2.1


Contract no. 43PTE / 2016

New nutritional solutions for laying hens, rich in cellulose, which determine the competitiveness of a poultry unit by reducing the production costs and increasing the quality of the eggs



Project manager


September 2018

The context in which the project proposal was developed

One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to ensure that sufficient amounts of healthy food are available to the population that is growing globally. At EU level, research and innovation in animal nutrition is fundamental to supporting the livestock sector and is the most profitable investment for this industry (FEFAC, Vision on animal nutrition, 2016). Over the last 20 years, through the “Farm to Fork” concept, nutrition and animal nutrition have come to the ramp with innovative solutions. The objective of innovation in animal nutrition is to provide pertinent responses that are consistent with today’s animal production demands and consumer demand that is more vocal. In this respect, feed formulations are re-designed both with regard to the ingredients used and their structure. But these recipes, no matter how sophisticated they may be, only impact on production if they also generate economic benefits. In poultry units, feed costs account for 60% -70% of total production costs. For this reason, any analysis of production costs and profitability needs to start with a cost analysis of feed, these being the main factor in the economic exercise.

The purpose of the project

In the context presented above, a consortium consisting of an economic agent (SC Avicola Lumina SA), two national institutes in the field of animal nutrition (IBNA Baloteşti) and the environment (ECOIND) and a higher education unit (USAMV Bucharest – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine) have proposed the implementation of a project whose aim is to increase the competitiveness of SC Avicola Lumina SA, producing egg-based eggs, by implementing environmentally friendly cellulose-rich feed formulations that will both reduce the production costs as well as increasing the nutritional quality of eggs.

Objectives provided

1.       Development of innovative, sustained and validated nutritional solutions through consistent and consistent multidisciplinary scientific data to meet the demands of the industrial environment on efficient feed conversion in high nutritional foods and sustainable growth. Research and innovation in animal nutrition is fundamental to sustaining the EU livestock sector under the policy of eliminating the traditional traditional economic model in favor of a circular and regenerative model.

2.       2. Increasing the competitiveness of SC Avicola Lumina by reducing feed costs, high productivity performance and profitability due to the use of innovative nutritional solutions validated in the production halls, which responds to the market requirements for specialized nutritional solutions. A complex requirement, with multiple dimensions, combined with the bio-economy that generates, inter alia, growth, sustainable development, well-being.

3.       3. Obtaining eggs with certain qualitative nutritional qualities, an aspect that responds to the growing demand for animal protein, globally, in a constantly changing context. There are scientifically proven prerequisites for the presence of cellulose at certain levels in the laying hen’s feed to obtain eggs with functional food qualities.

4.       4. Development of nutritional solutions corresponding to the requirements of sustainable development through the use of vegetable by-products and reduction of the impact of the process of growing laying hens on the environment. Ten years after the FAO’s Livestock’s Long Shadow report (November 29, 2006) on the significant impact of animal husbandry on the environment, manufacturers in this area have to respond by innovative approaches. Innovative nutritional solutions are more a part of the solution than part of the problem.

5.       Development of a partnership between the economic agent (SC Lumina), two national institutes in the field of animal nutrition (IBNA) and environment (ECOIND) as well as a higher education unit (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of USAMV Bucharest). This partnership aims to promote innovation at SC Lumina, a pillar of bioeconomy that represents the renewable part of the concept of circular economy promoted by EU economic policies.



Project implementation and results achieved at each stage

STAGE I: Validation under laboratory conditions of the quality of some high-quality cellulose by-products in order to develop a set of new nutritional solutions for laying hens

Stage specific objective Use of by-products in the food industry in the presence of enzymes as alternative feedstocks. Approach to EU policies to eliminate the traditional traditional economic model in favor of a circular and regenerative model

The results obtained as a result of carrying out the technical scientific activities stipulated in the working plan:

► The project coordinator (SC Avicola Lumina SA) sent a feedstock set to determine the primary chemical composition of partner 1 (IBNA Baloteşti): wheat flour, 2 sunflower husks, lucerne grains, flaxseed, soybean meal , rice and yeast hydrolysed-

►The results obtained from the analysis of feed material samples revealed that the highest concentrations of cellulose were determined in: alfalfa, sunflower cakes and in.

► According to the results obtained in cellulose determination, samples of alfalfa, lucerne, sunflower and flax seed have been transferred to determine the digestibility of cellulose in the presence of enzymes to partner 2 (ECOIND Bucharest). To determine what feedstock and what enzyme (Biozym M6000 or Kemzyme® Plus Dry) is better digested cellulose from feed feeds sent for analysis, in vitro analyzes were performed.

►The most effective couple of enzyme-plant substrate was made of Biozyme M6000: alfalfa in the 1: 1 ratio.

► There have been developed three new recipes (R1, R2 and R3) for chickens that according to the level of sunflower seed introduced have a higher cellulose content than in the conventional recipe, with a control of: 32.5% (R1) , 87.4% (R2), 145.4% (R3).

► Three new recipes (R1, R2 and R3) have been developed for chickens which, depending on the levels of lucerne and rice flocks introduced, have a higher cellulose content than conventional, with a control of 16.5% ( R1), 84.0% (R2), 145.4% (R3). The rice tart has been introduced to balance the protein energy content.

► Preparing, by increasing the intake capacity and raising the volume of chickens, of chickens in the period 9-16 weeks for adult feeding with cellulose-rich recipes. This training started in experimental halls at IBNA Baloteşti on an average of 268 Tetra breed (9-16 weeks).

STAGE II: Validation of new cellulose-rich nutritional solutions by microtubes on laying hens at the level of experimental laboratory halls. Validating the effectiveness of selected nutritional solutions following the microtest at the industrial level by transferring them to the Coordinator for the start of testing in the production halls


Specific objective of the stage Validation of the nutritional solutions elaborated in the previous stage by experimenting on laying hens at the level of experimental halls, hierarchizing the effectiveness of these nutritional solutions and transferring the two best nutritional solutions for experimentation at the level of production halls.

The results obtained as a result of the accomplishment of the technical scientific activities stipulated in the working plan:

►Two micro-experiments were carried out in accordance with the Romanian legislation for 8 weeks on 288 Tetra SLs, 28 weeks of age, according to an experimental protocol approved by the members of the Ethics Commission of IBNA Baloteşti.

► In the first microexperiment a recipe module consisting of a conventional control recipe + 4 new recipes that were included as a source of alfalfa cellulose, granules in different proportions and the BIOSIM enzyme were evaluated. The cellulose concentration was 3.71% in the control recipe and ranged from 6.67-8.59% to the new recipes depending on the lucerne level used in these recipes. This recipe module was used to feed 5 lots: 1 control lot (M1) and 4 experimental lots (E1, E2, E3 and E4)

► In the second microexperiment, the second module of recipes was also compiled from a conventional control + 4 new recipes that included, as sources of cellulose, sunflower seed and alfalfa in different proportions as well as the enzyme in degradation of cellulose in the intestine by the destruction of cellulosic fractions. The cellulose concentration was 3.76% in the control recipe and ranged from 7.59-8.62% to the new recipes. And this module was used to feed another 5 lots (M2, E5, E6, E7 and E8)

Hall microtease hens – IBNA experimental pavilion

►The largest egg weight was recorded in the batches that had the structure of the alfalfa recipe (16.34%) and a 6% cellulose level. Haugh unit values ​​recorded in eggs harvested from hens fed with compound feed that had 6% cellulose were higher.

► As a result of the 24-hour sacrifices, the results obtained with regard to segments of the digestive tract analyzed showed normal morphological aspects (USAMV Bucharest). Cheeks, as the final segment of the digestion process, presented normal histological aspects.

►The amount of degraded / processed cellulose from the combined feed is directly proportional to the amount of cellulosic enzyme used (for Biozyme).

►The biochemical parameters determined in the blood harvested at the end of the experiment showed that cholesterol levels in the blood decreased with increasing cellulose in ration

►Evaluation of the impact of samples of fodder and manure tested on the environment was made at ECOIND by comparing the experimentally determined values ​​for the physico-chemical indicators with the maximum admissible values ​​established by the legislation: Order no. 344/2004 for the approval of the Technical Norms on environmental protection and especially of soils when using sewage sludge in agriculture. The results obtained showed that the feed and manure analyzed do not have potential for environmental impact.

►For the hierarchy of the tested nutritional solutions and for the selection of the best nutritional solutions based on the production / quality egg / cost / environmental impact performance, we used the AHP assessment methodology (ECOIND) which was finalized with the recommendation of two recipes, Experimental Recipe 1 Experimental recipe 2 for transfer to the coordinator’s production halls.

►During the preparation of the chicks in the breeding halls at the Coordinator, the birds responded very well to the feeding of the new recipes, kept the weight curve and reached the top of the laying and kept on the laying curve.

►For the periods when the price of soybean meal increases, the new recipes, based on lucerne and sunflower seed, represent a viable and economical alternative

STAGE III: Analysis of the significance of the results obtained in macrotest (at industrial level) to increase the economic innovation capacity of the economic agent, its contribution to the production of functional eggs and the increase of competitiveness.

Production Hall – Avicola Lumina

Specific objective of the stage Technical and financial analysis of the results obtained in the macrotest by monitoring the production parameters and costs.

In the production halls at SC Avicola Lumina, they were tested against a hall with hens fed with the conventional recipe used:

Experimental recipe 1 that included 6% granulated lucerne and 15% sunflower grain, enzyme premix. The cellulose level being 6.71%

Experimental recipe 2 including 8% granulated lucerne, 15% sunflower, 15% enzyme premix, and a natural antioxidant based on grape extract (0.015%). The cellulose level being 7.06%


Production performance, as shown in the table below, has not been affected by the use of new feed recipe, where: a and c represent significant differences (P≤0.05) from M and E2

Egg with qualities of functional food:

The content in total egg yolk polyphenols (mg eq / g) was significantly higher (p <0.05) in eggs harvested in the E2 Recipe (8% lucerne granulated, 15% sunflower grain and 0.015% antioxidant of grapes).

The concentration of α-linolenic acid, omega-3 acid, was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the yolks of the experimental groups compared to group M. The increase of α-linolenic acid was 17.24%, in the case of the E1 group compared to the M , while group E2 recorded an increase of 268.96% compared to M.

The figure below shows the concentration of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human health: α linolenic (C18: 3n3), docosapentanoic (C22: 5n3) and docosahexanoic (C22: 6n3).


As can be seen in the figure below, the concentration of lutein in the eggs harvested in the E2-fed hall increased significantly (p <0.05) to 25,293 ppm from 6,825 ppm (M).

Financial Results Due to feed expenses, the overall objective of the project on the use of new nutritional solutions for laying hens, rich in cellulose, was to develop and test feedings (new nutritional solutions) to reduce the cost of purchasing the main raw materials, for example, soybeans – high cost protein feed – with other cheaper sources of protein (eg granular lucerne or sunflower) which may mean that they have a higher level of cellulose.

By optimizing the recipes, the feed production price was reduced on average by 10.10% for experimental group E2 compared to the feed lot M (illustrated in the table below). A decrease in the price per kg of feed in the hall fed with the Experimental recipe 2 was obtained with 0,11 lei / kg, ie 0,99 lei / kg compared to 1,099 lei / kg and 1,103 lei / kg respectively, values ​​obtained in halls fed with Experimental recipe 1 and recipe M respectively.


Conclusion of the results obtained with the coordinator: The Experimental Recipe 2 compared to the conventional one (M) was more economically efficient without affecting the health and production of the birds, the quality of the egg being superior to that reported for the group M. This recipe constituted the content of a patent application : (registration number OSIM A / 00755 of 28.09.2018) “HYDROGEN HYDROGEN COMBINED NUTRITE (7%) FOR HERBAL HERBS” ,; Applicant: SC Avicola Lumina SA, Constanta.

The TLR1-TLR3 maturity phases (idea, expertise, initial results) were covered by the project team at bid by: (TRL 1) – studying the literature on the idea of ​​feeding birds with pulp enriched in pulp; (TRL3) – Laboratory experiments on production parameters in case of raising the cellulose level in hen rations. The implementation of the project leaves the TRL 4 activities through the first two stages. In order to develop and validate in laboratory the results obtained from the experiments in the TLR 3 phase: 6 new feed solutions, developed in cellulose for laying hens, have been developed. In the second step, the efficacy of new nutritional solutions was validated by in vivo microscopy on laying hens in the two experimental halls at IBNA Baloteşti. The last stage of the project belongs to TRL 5 because the validation of the effectiveness of the two best nutritional solutions from microtests at industrial level was carried out by testing them on laying hens in production halls of SC Lumina. The activities of the last stage analyzed the significance of the results obtained, their contribution to the production of functional eggs and the increase of the coordinator by lowering the cost of fodder. Documentation for a patent application on the nutritional solution that has been implemented in production has been produced.

Through the implementation of the project, the project coordinator, SC Avicola Lumina, obtained the expected results

– decrease of the feed production price on average by 10.10% for the implemented recipe (with lucerne and sunflower grain) compared to the usual price of feed, which leads to the increase of SC Avicola’s competitiveness.

– obtaining functional eggs: increased the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids, the level of lutein and polyphenols, and the egg yolks harvested from the hen house fed with the implemented recipe. Ex: α-linolenic acid increased by 268.96% compared to the control room.

– the implementation of the recipe complies with environmental protection rules; microbial determinations did not indicate risk factors.

the implementation of the project promoted innovation at SC Lumina.

– In addition, the visibility of the research teams from the national institutes (IBNA Baloteşti ECOIND) and the USAMV Bucharest

The project “New nutritional solutions for laying hens, rich in cellulose, which determine the competitiveness of a poultry unit by reducing the production costs and increasing the quality of the eggs, promotes the use of a recipe enriched in pulp by including in the structure the lucerne grains and the grape of sunflower. The results have shown that besides the possibility of lowering the price of fodder, eggs have been enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, lutein and polyphenols. Consuming these eggs helps consumers prevent chronic diseases.